[v] Notably, Hanushek et al. (2017) concluded that vocational education is harmful in the later phases of work careers - vocationally qualified workers are the first to be laid off after the age of 50 because their specific skills are likely to be outdated. Yet, Forster et al. (2016) noted that, while it may be true that people with vocational qualifications are less likely to be employed later in their career, this pattern may be unrelated to the way that vocational education is organised. Specifically, they argue that the warning of Hanushek et al. (2017) to the proponents of a German style vocational training system should imply that the late career disadvantage of vocational degrees would be more pronounced in countries with a large dual system (. work- and school-based). Looking at the data, they did not find evidence of that difference. On the contrary, German-like education systems with a strong emphasis on dual tracks are characterised by less disadvantage late in the careers of vocationally qualified workers. The negative effect of vocational training at the end of the career are observable statistically only in countries that do not have dual-track systems, like the US and Canada.