But if they took 15 mg of Dianabol a day for five weeks -- Mix says it might have been three weeks, Shea says six -- it could have given them an advantage, especially if none of their opponents was using. Victor Conte, the BALCO mastermind, says a cycle of that size and length could have given them benefits for "four months or longer." But Charles Yesalis, professor emeritus of health policy and administration at Penn State University and a leading expert on doping, says such doses of Dianabol might have given the players a boost for only up to two months.
Fed up with muscleheads, Ziegler parted ways with York in 1967. But Dianabol continued to haunt him. Ziegler suffered from heart disease, a condition he partially ascribed to his experimentation with steroids. By the time of his 1983 death from heart failure, Ziegler came out against his invention. "It is bad enough to have to deal with drug addicts, but now healthy athletes are putting themselves in the same category," he wrote in the introduction to Bob Goldman's history of drugs and sports, Death in the Locker Room . "It's a disgrace. Who plays sports for fun anymore?"